Researchers for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) analyze evidence on the benefits and harms of lung cancer screening by age in a study being published in Annals of Internal Medicine.

Smoking is the most important risk factor for developing lung cancer. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) reported a reduction in lung cancer mortality in high-risk participants aged 55 to 74 who were randomly assigned to screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) versus chest radiography. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) subsequently recommended annual lung cancer screening with LDCT for persons aged 55 to 80 who had ever smoked.