A new article published in the American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology suggests biological sex affects neonatal lung injury related to hyperoxia.

Researchers sought to investigate sex-specific and cell-type specific transcriptional changes that drive injury in the neonatal lung exposed to hyperoxia at single-cell resolution and delineate the changes in cell-cell communication networks in the developing lung, the article reports.

According to their findings, “Sex-specific differences were evident in all lung cell subpopulations but were striking among the lung immune cells.”

“Exploring the basis behind sex-specific differences will be crucial to explain the female sex resilience in human [bronchopulmonary dysplasia] and will suggest new therapeutic modalities and guide the right therapy to the right patient,” the authors explained.

This study is highlighted as one of January’s “best of the best” as part of the American Physiological Society’s APSselect program.