According to a study in JAMA Pediatrics, the use of inhaled nitric oxide for high-risk preterm infants was safe but did not improve survival for those without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
Participants included 451 neonates younger than 30 weeks’ gestation with birth weight less than 1250 g receiving mechanical ventilation or positive pressure respiratory support on postnatal days 5 to 14.
In total, 222 infants (52.3% male) received placebo, and 229 infants (50.2% male) received inhaled nitric oxide. Survival without BPD at 36 weeks’ PMA was similar between the placebo and inhaled nitric oxide groups.
Inhaled nitric oxide, initiated at 20 ppm on postnatal days 5 to 14 to high-risk preterm infants and continued for 24 days, appears to be safe but did not improve survival without BPD at 36 weeks’ PMA or respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 24 months’ PMA.