A pneumonia diagnosis could be made based on 4 specific symptoms alone, according to a study published in the European Respiratory Journal.

Researchers identified 28,883 adults from 5,222 medical practices in the United Kingdom, forming a prospective cohort to determine whether clinical features could predict radiograph-confirmed pneumonia in adults presenting with lower respiratory tract symptoms in routine primary care. An initial clinical assessment was performed, followed by a 30-day follow-up via chart review.

Study results demonstrated the independent predictors of definite or probable pneumonia confirmed by radiograph to be temperature >37.8o C, crackles on auscultation, oxygen saturation <95%, and pulse >100 min-1.