Adding a urinary antigen detection test to conventional diagnostic methods increased the prevalence of S. pneumoniae community-acquired pneumonia by 39%; using bacteraemic episodes as reference sensitivity and specificity of the urinary antigen detection was 98% and 100%, respectively, according to new research published online ahead of print in the European Respiratory Journal.

For the study, a urine sample was collected from 1,095 community-acquired pneumonia patients. In addition to standard diagnostic procedures, a urinary antigen detection test was performed. Demographic, clinical, radiological, and microbiological data were collected.

The approach could enhance diagnostic yield for pneumococcal infections, according to the authors, who believe it could also provide more detailed information on the epidemiology of infection-associated pneumococcal serotypes.