A new study conducted in London suggests that exposure to air pollution is enough to counter the health benefits of exercise in adults age 60 or older regardless of whether they have COPD, heart disease, or are healthy.

These findings stem from one of two recently published studies led by scientists at MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health at Imperial College London and King’s College London.

The study, titled “Respiratory and cardiovascular responses to walking down a traffic-polluted road compared with walking in a traffic-free area in participants aged 60 years and older with chronic lung or heart disease and age-matched healthy controls: a randomised, crossover study,” was published in the journal The Lancet.

To conduct this study, researchers recruited 119 volunteers ages 60 and older and assessed their physical performance before and after a stroll in two different London streets. The goal was to determine the effects of exercise on cardiovascular health. Measurements included lung volume exhaled, blood pressure, and blood vessel expansion.